NS3/4A disrupts TLR3 and RIG-1 signaling pathways by blocking TRIF and CARDIF and NS5A interacts with TLR4 and impairs NK cell function. Levels of
, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 are upregulated in both monocytes and T cells in HCV patients. TLR4 is upregulated in T lymphocytes, and TLR5 is increased in monocytes. MD-2, a TLR4 co-receptor, is increased in monocytes and T cells.