Women who have a uterus, if given any type of estrogen, are also given a progestin (as combination therapy) because unopposed estrogen increases risk of endometrial cancer. For most women, risks of oral
hormone therapy outweigh benefits. Benefits include reduction in hot flushes, night sweats (and consequent sleep disturbance), and vaginal dryness. Combination therapy decreases yearly incidence (per 10,000 women treated) of osteoporosis (from 15 to 10) and colorectal cancer (from 16 to 10).