At highest risk for injury, are the joints of the lower limbs, which bear the brunt of the forces passing through the body while skiing. The knee
joint is the most vulnerable joint while skiing, with the ankle joint, the wrist, thumb and shoulder being the other joints commonly injured. Improvement in ski boots and bindings protect the foot, ankle and the tibia from injury. Unfortunately, this results in the even greater ground forces being transmitted to the semi-flexed knee.