Patients were followed monthly for signs of overt hepatic encephalopathy or death (mean follow-up time, 38 to 40 weeks). Every 3 months, they underwent psychometric, arterial ammonia
level, critical flicker frequency, glucose hydrogen, and lactulose hydrogen breath tests. Six probiotic patients and 5 control subjects were lost to follow-up.
More patients in the probiotic group than in the control group developed overt hepatic encephalopathy (8.8% vs 20.3%).