these include low birth weight, lower Apgar scores, preeclampsia, bleeding, placental abruption, and prematurity.
Regarding medication, as with all medications
taken during pregnancy
one must consider the risks versus the benefits. The four major antiepileptic drugs: phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, and phenobarbital have been associated with an increased risk of both major and minor malformations in fetuses.