Subjects, referred to 79 Italian hospitals, were enrolled in a 6-month period. The independent effect of the severity and aetiology of liver disease
on gallstone disease prevalence
was assessed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall, 4867 subjects tested anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive alone, 839 were hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) alone, and 652 had an excessive alcohol intake. The prevalence of gallstone disease was 23.3% in anti-HCV-positive patients, 12.