Other injectables may have included fentanyl (an opioid with a half life of 20 minutes), and perhaps propofol
(again, short acting sedative medication), however, propofol
is being used less and
less in this type of procedure.
The local anesthetic used at the injection site is usually a combination of bupivacaine (Marcaine) and a small fraction of epinephrine to constrict blood vessels to minimize bleeding or absorption of anesthetic.