Ultimately causing a constricted upper arch, high palatal vault (roof of the mouth), low external muscle force, open lip posture, a mouth breathing habit, and a tongue
trust. Because of continued displacement of the tongue
, lips, and cheeks, form and function are affected as a result of intra-oral and extra-oral muscle imbalance. The lips become weak and the tongue looses its normal force, hence, the teeth develop a malocclusion as they grow in and mature.