Intersting question. The text books talk about recurrent rheumatic fever
and antibic phrophylaxis, but I have never seen a case of recurrent RF. It is true that people who have had it are at risk for recurrence and should take antibiotics.
An acutely elevated ASO titre would suggest a recurrence. If you have a significant sore throat, you should take antibiotics prophalaxis anyway.
There are some rheumatoligic conditions that cause similar symptoms (minus the chorea).