Previous reports have not shown an increase in risks of birth defects
after prenatal exposure to oxycodone
, propoxyphene, or meperidine (10, 11). The authors of one retrospective study observed an increased risk of some birth defects with the use of prescribed opioids by women in the month before or during the first trimester of pregnancy (12). However, methodological problems with this study exist, and such an association has not been previously reported.