Newborns may be lethargic with faltering growth, while infants and young children typically present with pyrexia, dysuria, frequent urination, malodorous urine and
GIT symptoms, but only when urinary tract infection
is present as the initial presentation of VUR.
In healthy individuals the ureters enterposteriorly. Together these features produce a valvelike effect that occludes the ureteric opening during storage and voiding of urine.