Amitriptyline, bupivacaine, clonidine, gabapentin
, hydromorphone, levobupivacaine, lignocaine, methadone, mexiletine, morphine
, oxycodone and
tramadol have been used in the presence of renal failure, but do require specific precautions, usually dose reduction. Aspirin, dextropropoxyphene, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and pethidine, should not be used in the presence of chronic renal failure due to the risk of significant toxicity.