The well established panels of biomarkers of ﬁbrosis can be
broadly categorized as those that include commonly performed
biochemical and hematological tests, such as ALT, AST, prothrombin time, platelets (APRI
, AST/ALT ratio, Forns Index); those that
include speciﬁc indirect markers of liver ﬁbrosis, such as a-2
macroglobulin; those that incorporate only direct markers of liver ﬁbrosis, or combinations of direct and indirectmarkers.